Socialism is a new society of freedom--or it is nothing. This is the central argument of this pamphlet. Tracing the fate of revolutionary socialism through the past 100 years, David McNally shows that there are two currents in the socialist tradition. One is "socialism from above," that of the "leave to us" reformers in the West and the anti- democratic bureaucracies of the East. Neither has brought the world any closer to socialism. The other is socialism from below, the living tradition of workers' struggle which has been hidden in the years of compromise and betrayal. With world capitalism again in deep political and economic crisis, humanity stands in desperate need of this tradition, of a transformation of the world order from below.